A campus is a landed property of considerable size used by a single company or institution (hospital, university). A campus will house different (business) units of the company in multiple buildings scatterred over the site. Some campuses are set up with the specific purpose of stimulating interaction and creativity (e.g. Microsoft, Apple, Google and Philips).
Business oriented campuses are typically located at the periphery (near suburbs), while industrial oriented campuses often diverge to more remote locations (rural areas). In both cases the location choice is made because the land is relatively affordable, there is space to develop the campus and the location strategically coincides with multiple transit modes (with a specific focus on car-accessibility). As a result the campuses are faced with similar accessibility issues as business and industrial parks.
The campuses have a high intensity of labor and visitors, requiring good external accessibility – both by car and by public transportation. As the campuses are usually not located near existing public transportation nodes, transit solutions will have to be implemented to connect the site. The transit solutions can be extensions of existing modes of transportation or new (automated) transit alternatives (operating on-demand or at a high frequency to ensure changing transportation modes is seamless).
Typically companies will be actively involved in the development of their campus, focusing on the optimal spatial planning to ensure all facilities can be realized within the boundaries of the property. Ample parking should be facilitated, but preferably not at the expense of other amenities. By centralizing parking or interconnecting multiple de-centralized parking facilities, efficiencies of space are created and a pleasant, car-free working environment is ensured.
Automated People Mover Systems are an interesting alternative for these connections. As an additional advantage electronically guided systems can easily be integrated on site.
Most campuses house different (business) units of the company in multiple buildings scattered over the site. To improve both the internal and external accessibility a well-integrated on-site (Personal Rapid Transit) system is required.
The small footprint of the track and the stations allow for the PRT system to be integrated in the spatial planning of the site (either at-grade or elevated). Stations can be created in front of the main entrance or (even better) be integrated into the buildings.
The PRT system should interconnect all buildings, facilities and parkings on site. The (loop) network typology will have to ensure direct connections to the primary locations. Optionally the system can connect to off-site (remote) parking facilities, creating additional parking capacity.
Without a well-integrated PRT system most trips would most likely be undertaken by car; creating massive parking issues and (adding to the) congestion on the perimeter roads of the business park. An integrated internal transportation system ensures superior accessibility, while allowing for direct and (time-) efficient connections and a more pleasant working environment (park-like environment free of traffic). At the same time it avoids the negative side-effects (parking and congestion) of other transit systems.
Campuses are typically located at the periphery or even (for most industrial estates) in rural areas. They depend largely on car accessibility, featuring (multiple) large parking facilities. However, the high intensity of labor and visitors also requires good external accessibility by public transportation. The ParkShuttle can function as a feeder system to the (various) parking facilities and nearby public transit nodes.
The ParkShuttle will feature a direct connection from site to the transportation node. On-site, however, a network configuration is more likely, with stations created near the main entrances of the principle buildings – ensuring short walking distances and making the system attractive to use. The stations are simple concrete slabs and can be created at low costs.
The system is likely to operate at grade, allowing for at grade crossings with other traffic. When connecting to the parking facilities other traffic is reduced to a minimum, ensuring a car-free (green) working environment. Such campus-like environments ensure a far more pleasant working place.
When connecting to parking facilities, effecienies of space can be achieved. Hence less space is required for parking and can be used for value-adding activities (more office space). Alternatively the Group Rapid Transit system can also connect to a (remote) parking facility. Connecting to an external parking facility increases the total number of parking spaces available for the estate, while avoiding increasing the traffic intensity (congestion) to it.
Whether connecting to parking or to a public transportation node, the ParkShuttle is the last link in the transportation chain.