Group Rapid Transit
Group Rapid Transit (GRT) is an automated transit system with an exclusive right-of-way, accomodating a shared ride for 6 to maximum 30 passengers per vehicle. Typically these systems are installed in a line connection, but can also operate in a network configuration. A GRT system can operate at intermediate headways and provides a high frequency or transportation on-demand.
2getthere’s Group Rapid Transit system consists of a number of automated mini-buses (ParkShuttles) and the supervisory control system TOMS. The ParkShuttle vehicle can accommodate 20 (12 seats, 8 standees) to 25 passengers (8 seats, 17 standees) and allows for easy wheelchair access. The guide way is typically constructed at grade, allowing for at grade crossings or, when required (because of the intensity of the transportation flows), elevated or underground.
The ParkShuttle GRT system basically operates comparable to a horizontal elevator. The vehicles will stop at every station indicated as destination and stations where transport has been requested. As a consequence the system will operate comparable to a bus service in peak hours and (almost) as a PRT system in off-peak hours (providing non-stop origin to destination connections).
Possible applications, whether they concern simple connections or (complicated) networks, range from city centers to residential areas, business and industrial parks, theme parks and resorts. A Group Rapid Transit system will typically be installed as a feeder system to a public transportation node or a (central) parking facility. This can be in a line connection, but a network connection is also possible.
2getthere has realized several GRT applications, installing pilot projects at Amsterdam Airport Schiphol and business park Rivium. After a (very) positive evaluation the project at business park Rivium was upgraded and extended in 2005. Additional stations were installed and six new 2nd generation ParkShuttles implemented. In addition to the projects, (temporary) demonstrations were realized in Antibes, Monaco, Versailles (France), Hanover (Germany), Utrecht and Delft (the Netherlands).
Main reasons to consider Group Rapid Transit systems is the reduced operational and life cycle costs. Electronically guided people movers minimize infrastructure costs as well. An automated system also provides an improved service to the passengers: 24hr transportation on-demand or at a high frequency. For cities the reduction of car traffic, congestion and the environmentally friendly character of the transportation systems are important too. For resorts and (real estate) developers the system presents the possibility to reduce space wasted for non-value added activities (such as parking) by connecting locations and optimizing land use.GRT System Summary:
|System Capacity (4 second headway):||2.000 – 8.000 passengers per hour|
|Economically viable from:||Approx. 1500 p/pday|
|Supervisory System (Network Controls):||Transit Operations Monitoring and Supervision (TOMS)|
|Vehicles:||20-25 passenger ParkShuttle|
|Infrastructure:||Asphalt, at grade|
|Status:||2nd generation operational|
|Configuration:||Line / Network|
|Operations:||On-demand / On-schedule|
|Connections:||Ride-sharing (Multiple Origins, Multiple Destinations)|
|Stations:||On-line / Off-line|
|Propulsion:||Central AC motor, differential rear axle|
|Energy supply:||Electric or Hybrid|
|Maximum speed:||40 km/h [25m/ph]|