Standards and Certification
At this time there are no dedicated safety standards that specifically address PRT or GRT systems although some existing standards partly apply (e.g. the APM Standards), or address specific aspects of the system (e.g. NFPA 130 Standard for Fixed Guideway Transit and Passenger Rail Systems).
These standards are taken into account where applicable. The safety of each application is based on the FMECA procedure (using qualitative analysis), followed by a detailed Event Tree Analysis for consequences and complimented by Fault Tree Analysis for the components. Together this leads to a quantitative level of safety which can be compared to the set safety target.
Design Safety Case
In the determination of the safety level first a quantitative analysis is done through Failure Mode And Criticality Analysis (FMECA): the application is decomposed to system and subsystem level where comprehensive failure mode analysis can be performed. When demonstrated that all failure modes are sufficiently mitigated, the Major Accident Hazards are identified.
Consequently an Event Tree Analysis is performed with failure rates and probabilities, either taken from reliability data or constructed through Fault Tree Analysis. These Event Trees cover all Major Accident Hazards. Ultimately all Event Trees are accumulated to a single risk figure for passengers, maintenance personnel and bystanders.
Operational Safety Case
Even with the design of a system (e.g. a car) being deemed sufficiently safe, if it is used by untrained person (i.e. someone without a license) or in an unauthorized way (such as ignoring traffic signs) it can be unsafe.
The Operational Safety Case addresses the operations and the exported requirements. It is drafted by the operator based on the Design Safety Case. The Operation Safety Case summarizes all operational and maintenance activities and documentation issued in relation to the system and constituent subsystems. The Safety Case provides evidence to affirm the safe operation and maintenance of the system and describes how it achieves the defined safety targets and safety requirements.
2getthere has been granted certification by the Abu Dhabi Department of Transportation for the Masdar PRT System on November 23rd, based on the Letters of No Objection as issued by the Independent Safety Assessor (Lloyd’s Rail Register) and Independent Health Assessor (Bureau Veritas). The Rivium application in the Netherlands has been thoroughly reviewed by TNO (the Dutch Organization of Applied Scientific Research) as part of the CyberCars and CyberMove EU-research programs resulting in a report indicating no objection to the operations.